How to solve citrus greening disease
Greening disease, also known as Huang Long Bing, is one of the most important citrus diseases in the world. The damage caused by this disease is very heavy and irreparable. In this article, we are going to examine citrus greening disease. And read How to solve citrus greening disease
How is greening disease transmitted?
The causative agent of greening disease is transmitted by infected Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) from infected trees to healthy trees. The causative agent can also be transmitted through grafts and cess plants.
The method of transmission is stable and proliferative and the carrier insect stays infected for the rest of its life by feeding once from infected trees and has the ability to transmit the disease.
Symptoms of greening disease
Physical symptoms alone can not be a means of diagnosing the disease, because other diseases such as Blythe, Staburn, Tristeza (citrus Tristeza disease) and nutrient deficiencies (zinc, iron and manganese) can also cause similar symptoms.
The presence of one or more branches with yellow leaves in a newly infected tree may indicate that the tree is a suitable sampling option for molecular experiments.
Appearance symptoms of greening disease (greening)
- Leaves yellow and oblong (presence of yellow and green areas without clear border)
- In citrus greening disease, unlike zinc deficiency, the appendix on both sides of the leaf is not symmetrical.
- The leaves are small, thin, leathery, thick and erect, and the veins are prominent.
- Yellowing of tree branches
- Leaves and fruits fall off and bloom out of season
- Decay and wilting of branches in heavily infested trees
- Finally, the infected tree withers and dies
Symptoms of greening disease on the fruit
The symptoms of this disease on the fruit are somewhat similar to the symptoms caused by several other diseases, especially Staburn.
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The most obvious of these symptoms in citrus fruits:
Keep the fruit small
Staying green and not changing the color of the surface of infected fruits near Golgah (greening disease)
Bad breath (somewhat sour and bitter fruits of infected fruits)
Shrinkage, hollowness, dullness and sterilization of seeds inside the fruit
Greening disease control
How to solve citrus greening disease
In areas free of citrus psyllid pests:
Frequent tracking and monitoring of citrus orchards for psyllids
If a psyllid is found in a garden, chemically control the psyllid pest in order to eradicate it completely
Monitor the infected garden and ensure the eradication of the psyllid pest
Trace greening disease in a garden where psyllids have been found and, if diagnosed, remove infected trees
Observance of quarantine principles and prevention of transfer of seedlings, scions and wood of cut trees from psyllid and greening disease infected areas to healthy areas
Use healthy seedlings
In areas infected with psyllid pest:
Fight against psyllids in all orchards in order to eradicate them with appropriate insecticides that reduce psyllid damage and reduce disease transmission and spread.
Observe the principles of quarantine and prevent the transfer of logs, scions and wood from areas infected with greening disease to areas where the disease has never been reported.
Detection of symptoms in orchards and detection of the causative agent in trees suspected of being infected using PCR test.
Removal of infected trees in orchards and areas where contamination has just begun.
Use of healthy seedlings in new orchards and subsequent care for psyllid infestation
Tracking and sampling time
The best time to sample a tree is in the fall and early winter on annual branches. Because the growth of the leaves is complete and they show the symptoms well, and it is possible to collect the fruit (the marks on the fruit are important for diagnosing the disease).