How to solve garden problem with Permaculture design?
The agricultural industry is facing serious problems such as environmental problems, the effects of global warming, widespread erosion, soil salinity and soil and water pollution due to toxic residues. At present, we need methods and systems for food production that are designed to protect soil, water, and soil nutrients, and to minimize the use of fossil fuels, chemical fertilizers, and industrial pesticides. In this article, we are going to discuss How to solve garden problem with Permaculture design.
How to solve garden problem with Permaculture design
Although the expansion of organic agriculture is a positive development in this area, in the final analysis of agricultural production will be preserved only if the farms are designed in the form of natural ecosystems in which the knowledge of science combines with the wisdom of nature. Natural ecosystems are highly resilient and use only renewable resources. For thousands of years, they have shown high productivity, remarkable ability to maintain environmental quality, and rapid adaptation to natural disruptions. Therefore, they can be used as successful models for designing and building agricultural ecosystems.
This is a permaculture approach, the name coined by Australian ecologists Bill Molison and David Holmgren to describe the concept of a self-sustaining and purpose-built agricultural system.
This system goes one step further than organic farming, which uses natural principles to design and sustain food production systems.
Permaculture is an agricultural system and principles of social design by which the pattern or features observed in the natural ecosystem are used directly or simulated. The word permaculture is a combination of the two words Permanent meaning permanent and the word Agriculture meaning agriculture Perma + Cultur.
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By combining elements such as microclimate, annual and perennial plants, soil and water management, and human needs, permaculture experts form a system in which energy storage, increased efficiency, reduced maintenance costs occur, and all components are integrated. .
A good permaculture design takes advantage of the fact that the earth develops and improves over time. In natural ecosystems, this concept is referred to as a substitution, which describes the process by which, for example, in a pasture, successive communities of weeds, shrubs, trees, and other plant species grow to transform the area into a forest. Be.
In traditional agriculture, early succession is limited to methods such as plowing, grazing, fertilizing, and pest control, all of which require energy. By allowing agricultural substitution, or even by consciously guiding it, energy and nutrients can be conserved, soil losses reduced, and vegetarian populations stabilized.
Single crop cropping systems expose the soil to erosion at the harvest stage and ultimately lead to imbalances in the system. Simple replacement systems can be economical. For example, annuals that are planted between the rows of a young garden until the trees grow older and reach fruition can generate income from annuals planted between the rows.
In some cases, recognizing the replacement process is key to optimal land use. Many shrubs and shrubs that accumulate in an area provide a suitable environment for the trees that will later grow there. Trees that will grow after these species will usually be shade-loving, and many will even need shade to germinate. Other pioneer species are nitrogen stabilizers. By increasing soil nitrogen levels, they will help create more fertile soil for stronger plant growth.
Another feature of the Permaculture system is that the necessary inputs for production and management will be provided from biological sources whenever possible. The potential for the use of biological inputs is enormous and the key to creating a sustainable agricultural system.
The permaculture system focuses on diversification rather than monoculture and includes a wide variety of plant species from large trees to cover plants. However, because the interaction between plants is both beneficial and competitive, it is important to choose the right variety.
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Relationships between plants take many forms, including competition for light, food, water, pollinators, and chemical interactions.
The number of elements in an agricultural land is less important than the quality of the links between its elements. Good design increases the number of beneficial interactions between plants.
The three main goals of permaculture:
- Caring for and maintaining the health of the earth: Providing for all living systems so that they can continue to live and reproduce. This is the first principle. Because without a healthy earth, the human race will not continue.
- Caring for and preserving human health: Providing access to human resources
- Fair share: By controlling our needs, we can save resources to advance the above principles. This includes returning the waste to the system for recycling and reuse. The concept of fair share is that none of us should take more than we need.