What is soil solarization? and what is pros and cons
What is soil solarization? and what is pros and cons? Pests and diseases always cause serious damage to horticulture and field crops. Because of their existence, the required output is greatly reduced, which is a huge economic loss for farmers and producers. Therefore, they must be eradicated. Various methods have been tried and practiced to solve this problem.
There are chemical applications, such as soil application pesticides to control weeds, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and soil-borne diseases. However, the use of chemical pest control is considered undesirable due to its adverse effects on humans and animals, the toxic residues they produce, and the high cost and complexity of their treatment.
To avoid negative consequences, many non-chemical methods have been researched and applied to control pests and diseases. One such method is exposing the soil to the sun. Soil solarization is a pest control technology that uses radiant heat from the sun to kill many soil-borne pathogens. In this process, the ground is covered and covered with a tarp, usually a transparent polyethylene covering, which can absorb solar energy.
It is very similar to a greenhouse. Because heat is captured and used, this method causes some physical, chemical, and biological changes in the soil in the most natural way. These changes lead to the control or suppression of soil-borne pathogens and diseases.
This technique works best in sunny and high temperature areas. However, recent revisions indicate that it can also work in colder areas and colder times of the year. Pathogens and weeds that are not controlled by the sun have also been detected. Biological, chemical and physical changes in the soil during and after sun exposure have been studied, as well as the interaction of sun exposure and other control methods.
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Long term effects
Long-term effects, including biological control and increased growth response, have been verified in various climatic regions and soils, demonstrating the universal applicability of solarization. Computer simulation models have been developed to guide researchers and farmers as to whether their local environmental conditions are suitable for sun exposure.
The following are the significant benefits of soil solarization:
What is soil solarization? and what is pros and cons Sun exposure to soil cannot completely eradicate soil pathogens and diseases. However, studies have shown that pathogens can re-infect sun-dried soil at a slower rate than untreated soil.
What is soil solarization? and what is pros and cons? Sunlight from the ground can control various weeds because many of them are sensitive to soil moisture and high radiation. After a year of treatment, this aspect is usually evident. Some of the weeds that can be partially controlled by sunlight from the ground include sweet clover (Melilotus alba), yellow walnuts (Cyperus esculentus), purple walnuts (C. rotundus), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), and grass crab (Digitaria sanguinalis).
In part, sun exposure of the soil can reduce nematode populations. Nematodes are a family of parasitic worms, which includes hookworms and pinworms, and are generally found in soil. Because nematodes are generally heat resistant, sun exposure is most effective and economically feasible for shallow-rooted crops and gardens.
Increases the growth of plants
Studies have shown that plants grown in sun-dried soil grow faster, yield and quality are higher. This can be attributed to three reasons. First, the main pathogens and pests are controlled, which obviously leads to better plant growth.
Secondly, some soluble nutrients such as nitrogen (NO3, NH4 +), calcium (Ca ++) and magnesium (Mg ++) can increase and are more easily used by plants in the sun-dried soil. Finally, some beneficial microorganisms such as mycorrhizal fungi, actinomycetes, and beneficial bacteria survive the sun and re-colonize the soil. In turn, this helps the biological control of pathogens and pests, as well as stimulating plant growth.